A cyber-physical system (CPS) is an orchestration of computers and physical systems.

CPS combines various models including engineering and environmental, civil, electrical, biomedical, chemical with methods of computer science. However, these models and methods do not combine easily so, CPS consequently constitutes a new engineering branch, which demands its own models and methods. The “cyber-physical systems” word emerged during 2006 and was coined by Helen Gill at the National Science Foundation in the United States. Another related term “cyberspace” is attributed to William Gibson, who used the term in the novel Neuromancer, though the roots of the term cyberphysical systems are older.

It would be more accurate to view the terms “cyberspace” and “cyberphysical systems” as stemming from the same root, “cybernetics,” which was coined by Norbert Wiener, an American mathematician who had a huge impact on the development of control systems theory. During World War II, Wiener pioneered technology for the automatic aiming and firing of anti-aircraft guns. Although the mechanisms he used did not involve digital computers, the principles involved are similar to those used today in computer-based feedback control systems.

The term CPS is sometimes confused with “cybersecurity,” which concerns the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and has no intrinsic connection with physical processes.

The term “cyber security,” therefore, is about the security of cyberspace and is thus only indirectly connected to cybernetics. CPS certainly involves many challenging security and privacy

concerns, but these are by no means the only concerns.

CPS and its associated technologies, like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DP), Big Data Analytics, Robotics, Quantum Computing, Quantum Communication, Quantum encryption (Quantum Key Distribution), Data Science & Predictive analytics, Cyber Security for physical infrastructure and other infrastructure, have pervaded and is playing a transformative role in almost every field of human endeavour almost in all sectors. It has become imperative for government and industries to be prepared to adopt these emerging and disruptive technologies in order to remain competitive, drive societal progress, generate employment, foster economic growth and to improve the overall quality of life and sustainability of the environment. NM-ICPS is a Pan India Mission and covers entire gamut of India that includes Central Ministries, State Governments, Department of Science & Technology with a total outlay of Rs 3660 crore for a period of five years will implement National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems.

The mission implementation would develop and bring:

  • Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and associated technologies within reach in the country
  • Adoption of CPS technologies to address India specific National / Regional issues
  • Produce Next Generation skilled manpower in CPS
  • Catalyze Translational Research, accelerate entrepreneurship and start-up ecosystem development in CPS
  • Give impetus to advanced research in CPS, Technology development and higher education in Science
  • Technology and Engineering disciplines
  • Place India at par with other advanced countries and derive several direct and indirect benefits.

Implementation strategy:

NM-ICPS is a comprehensive Mission which would address; Entrepreneurship and start-up development, Technology development with development of applications and Human resource development that includes skill enhancement in CPS and other related technologies.

The Mission aims at establishment of 15 numbers of Technology Innovation Hubs (TIH), six numbers of Application Innovation Hubs (AIH) and four numbers of Technology Translation Research Parks (TTRP). These Hubs & TTRPs will connect to Academics, Industry, Central Ministries and State Government in developing solutions at reputed academic, R&D and other organizations across the country in a hub and spoke model. A strategic approach involving a suitable mix of Academic, Industry and Government is proposed to be adopted. Strong Steering and Monitoring Mechanisms in the form of Mission Governing Board (MGB), Inter-Ministerial Coordination Committee (IMCC), Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) and other Sub-Committees will guide and monitor the Mission implementation. The Hubs & TTRPs have four focused areas along with the Mission implementation would proceed, namely (i) Technology Development; (ii) HRD & Skill Development; (iii) Innovation, Entrepreneurship & Start-ups Ecosystem Development; (iv) International Collaborations.


CPS technologies provide a cutting edge to a Nation’s scientific, engineering, and technological innovative capabilities; support other missions of the government, provide industrial and economic competitiveness and have truly became a Strategic Resource. Volume, scale and complexity of emerging applications demand continued evolution of new technologies for the foreseeable future. The proposed Mission would act as an engine of growth that would benefit national initiatives in health, education, energy, environment, agriculture, strategic cum security, and industrial sectors, Industry 4.0, SMART Cities, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) etc. CPS is an integrated system of upcoming technology, which in turn is being taken up on priority basis by countries in the race for development. CPS will indeed bring a paradigm shift in entire skill sets requirement. The job opportunities will be enhanced through the Mission by imparting advanced skills and generating skilled manpower as per the requirement of the industry / society. As Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Startup Ecosystem is an integral part of the proposed NM-ICPS, the start-ups will also create a number of technology driven job opportunities in CPS and allied areas. Accordingly, it is estimated that, about 40,000 jobs will be created in the short term and about 2,00,000 in long term.

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